# Essential poker math

Texas Holdem is a math based game – luckily, the essential math principles are easy to understand once explained properly. ## Minimum defense frequency – Fully explained

Definition of minimum defense frequency Minimum defense frequency (abbreviated as MDF) is the percentage of time a given player must not fold in response to an aggressive action from their opponent (either a bet, or a raise) to prevent their opponent from taking that aggressive action with any two cards. Calculating minimum defense frequency Let … ## Stack to pot ratio – Fully explained

Definition of stack to pot ratio Between any 2 players the stack to pot ratio (abbreviated as SPR) is the smallest stack size remaining in front of either player (known as the ‘effective stack’ between them), divided by the current pot size. Note that the SPR is calculated after a round of betting has been … ## Expected value – How to use

Definition of expected value The expected value of a cash game poker hand is the amount of money we expect to win, on average, for a given line. All money previously invested into the pot, is treated as dead money. We do not have to deduct our previous investments into the pot, when calculating expected … ## Equity – Fully explained

Definition of pot equity Pot equity refers to the odds that a particular hand (or range of hands) will win, given the hand(s)/range(s) held by opponent(s), AFTER the river card is dealt. Equity is usually expressed as a percentage, but can also be expressed as a ratio. It is important to note that the equity … ## Blockers – The math

How do blockers affect combos? You have 2 known cards in your hand – therefore your opponents cannot have these in there hand. These cards could be blockers to key hands in your opponent’s range. This information can be crucial. If you think you know it all, try poker.betzoo.uk’s interactive combinatorics and probability quiz, which … ## Combinatorics and probability – Simplified

Introduction What’s the probability of getting dealt, or your opponent holding, a particular hand/range? Use combinatorics, and probability to answer these questions. If you think you know it all, try poker.betzoo.uk’s interactive combinatorics and probability quiz, which will give you instant feedback. There are 1,326 different starting hands you could be dealt (assuming the order … ## Pot odds – Everything you need to know

Definition of pot odds The ratio of the current pot size compared to the cost of a possible call, is known as pot odds. This is one of the most important things you will have to calculate, before making strategy decisions in a hand. The less you are risking, compared to your possible reward, the …